GEOG 110. Cultural Geography (Staff)
Cultural differences, and ways of understanding cultural difference, in a global context are examined. After an introduction to key moments in the recent history of the discipline (Cultural Geography), students develop a geographical perspective on: (1) the relationship between culture and politics; (2) the relationship between culture and economic development; and (3) the relationship between culture and nature. Students explore these themes through lecture and discussion copiously illustrated with maps, slides, and videos; short writing projects; the analysis of maps and visual representations of cultural difference; and the reading of specialized materials. F, S. (Group I, Diversity)

GEOG 111. Physical Geography (Amador, Krygier)
Developing an understanding of the physical world around us is the primary course objective. A systems approach is used to understand how landscapes are built up (tectonics) and how they are rearranged through weathering, stream transport, and glacial movement. The processes responsible for the patterns that we see (e.g., why mountain ranges are where they are, why the Midwest is flat) are discussed. Readings, lectures, and discussions are used to do this. Additional weekly exercises allow students to have interactive (e.g., Google Earth), hands-on experiences that reinforce the concepts learned in the course. Freshmen and sophomores only. F, S. (Group I)

GEOG 200.1. Geographic Analysis of Agriculture Production in Central Ohio (Staff)
(Summer only)
In this five-week summer course we analyze different forms of agricultural production found in Central Ohio. Each week we engage with critical geographic readings concerning agricultural practices. We study sustainable agriculture, organic agriculture, agri-business, the relationship between the consumer and producer, and issues surrounding labor and agricultural production. Each week the class will visit a site of agricultural production related to the readings. (Group I)

GEOG 222. The Power of Maps and GIS (Krygier)
Maps are essential tools for geographers and others who use spatial information and study spatial phenomena. Maps can be used to both explore and present data, and they play an important role in our society. This course is an introduction to maps and cartography, with an emphasis on how they relate to geographic information systems (GIS). Major topics include data sources, the map abstraction process, “map infrastructure” (scale, projections, reference systems, accuracy), map types, use, and interpretation. Course material covers technical and social issues as well as applications. The growing role of the World Wide Web (WWW) in providing data, maps, and GIS functions will be emphasized—with many WWW-based exercises integrated into the course. Geography 222 serves as an introduction to courses in cartography and geographic information systems (GIS). No prerequisites; open to all students. F, S. (Group I)

GEOG 235. Energy Resources (Amador)
Resource utilization and management, focusing on the earth’s renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Each type of energy resource is analyzed and future use is postulated. Emphasis is on coal, petroleum and the Middle East. No prerequisites; open to all students. F. (Group I)

GEOG 270. Cultural Geography of the Middle East (Staff)
This course focuses on the landscapes of the Middle East as they have been shaped by human occupancy. The course explores the many layers of civilization in the Middle East, including the enormous cultural and ethnic diversity of the region, the evolution of political states, the role of religion in politics and culture, the differing experiences of men and women, the social and environmental consequences of rapid urbanization and the growth of the tourism industry. Includes discussions of the physical environment and natural resource endowments of the region, especially water and oil. No prerequisites. Sophomores, juniors, and seniors only. S. (Group I, Diversity)

GEOG 300.3. Geography, Globalization and Place: the Mexico-U.S. Border at Tijuana (Staff)
This course studies economic and cultural globalization from a geographical perspective using the Tijuana border region as a case study to understand how globalization produces and impacts regions. The border-crossing between Tijuana and San Diego is the busiest in the world with 41 million crossings a year. Tijuana sits at the meeting place between the global south and the global north, the first and the third worlds. It is a site of offshore assembly plants and a place of global cultural hybridism, indeed an ideal globalized laboratory. Tijuana provides an excellent microcosm to understand how cultural and economic globalization functions. S. (Group I, Diversity)

GEOG 300.6. Remote Sensing of the Environment (Amador)
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about a surface or an object without direct contact. Increasingly, remotely sensed imagery and data are being used in research and by the public (e.g., Google Earth). Course objectives include developing an understanding of fundamental photogrammetry and the physical properties of satellite and aircraft-derived imagery, and learning about how interdisciplinary problems may be solved using different remote sensing applications. We explore the use of the following types of data: aerial photography; multispectral, hyperspectral, and thermal imaging; RADAR; and LIDAR. Geographical applications of remote sensing are emphasized. Sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Freshman may be added with instructor permission. S.

GEOG 330. Geography of Europe (Staff)
The cultural geography of Europe. Emphasis in the course is placed on the historical geography and evolution of Europe as a culture region, the development of European regional geographies (e.g., Mediterranean Europe; Eastern Europe); the growth and development of villages, towns, and cities throughout European history; the country and city architecture of Europe; and the growth and development of industrial, economic, and political regions and organizations (e.g., the Ruhr of Germany; the EEC, NATO, etc.). (Group I)

GEOG 332. Cultural Geography of the United States (Staff)
The cultural impress of man on the environment and regions of the U.S. Origin and diffusion of culture groups; population growth and dynamics; history and organization of resource development, settlement, and land use. The cultural ecology of American society. The formation and development of regional cultural landscapes and economic regions, and the analysis of regional economic interaction, change, and disparity. S. (Group I)

GEOG 333. Latin American Geographies (Staff)
Developing an understanding of the region known as Latin America (i.e., Mexico, which is regionally classified as North America, Central America, South America, and the heterogeneous region of the Caribbean) from a geographic, post-colonial perspective is the objective of the course. Perceptions of the region from the inside, as well as how the region has been socially constructed from the outside, are focal points. Readings on and discussions of the construction of the region called Latin America from a cultural and political-economic perspective, and by following the themes of colonialism, imperialism, development and underdevelopment, globalization, neoliberalism, and the formation of post-neoliberal alternatives in the region are used. The chosen themes overlap; their overlap is examined in specific cases (e.g., how the deterioration of the agricultural sector has spurred large scale rural-to-urban migration; the rise and decline of regional economic alliances; memory practices in the wake of dictatorships; and contemporary student activism across the region). No prerequisites; sophomores, juniors, and seniors only. F. (Group I, Diversity)

GEOG 334. Cultural Geography of Africa (Staff)
The human (cultural) geography of Africa. Origin and diffusion of cultural groups; resource development, settlement history, and land use. The cultural ecology and environmental impact of African peoples; colonial influence on economic and cultural change. Development of present cultural and economic activities of the various political divisions. Emphasis in the last third of the course focuses on problems of African development including Apartheid (S. Africa); agriculture; urbanization; and political economy. F. (Group I, Diversity)

GEOG 345. Geographies of the Global Economy (Staff)
“Globalization,” which demands a thematic emphasis on how local economies relate to produce the global and also how “the local” is entangled in “the global,” is the starting point for the course. The building of great cities, the extraction of natural resources, the migration of people in search of economic opportunity, and the creation of vast networks (both physical and virtual) of communication and transportation are all examples of economic phenomena that shape and define landscapes of globalization. This course is an introduction to economic geography and spatial dimensions of economic change. During the semester, students examine how their world has given rise to and been shaped by economic forces. Issues and themes include: (1) the historical geography of capitalism; (2) spatial patterns of economic interaction, including directional flows of goods, labor, consumers, and firms; (3) forces and actors promoting global economic interconnectivity, including transnational corporations, trade routes, trading blocks, international financial institutions, and technologies that mitigate the economic impact of distance and borders; (4) geographies of development and underdevelopment, and shifting geographical patterns of wealth, poverty, and economic growth; and (5) social difference and issues of social justice as related to the global economy. No prerequisites; sophomores, juniors, and seniors only. S. (Group I, Diversity)

GEOG 347. Environmental Alteration (Amador)
Global environmental change is among the most important of issues in the next century. The primary objective of the course is to explore the relationship between the human and environmental systems—at local to global scales. In order to grasp the importance of global environmental change, students need to understand: (1) the importance of scale in order to differentiate behaviors that modify the landscape (i.e., an individual throwing trash versus tropical deforestation) and the impacts they have (i.e., local stream pollution versus variability in large-scale precipitation patterns); (2) data collection methods, data analysis, and presentation of findings; (3) how research outcomes can affect local, positive changes to address negative local and global environmental degradation; and (4) the differential impacts of global environmental change by comparing various worldwide locations, including differences between the Global South (e.g., Costa Rica) and Global North (e.g., the U.S.). Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. F. (Group I)

GEOG 353. Cartography and GIS (Krygier)
Geography 353 reviews essential elements of cartographic design and visualization in the context of geographic information systems (GIS). The core of this course is the laboratory project: students will locate data on the world wide web (WWW), process the data so it can be mapped in ArcView (GIS and mapping software), and design and produce a series of maps based on the data. Students will learn to construct basic HTML pages, containing the project maps, which will be placed on the WWW at the end of the semester. Lab work is informed by lectures that focus on the concepts, frameworks, and technical issues of cartographic design and visualization. No prerequisites. F. (Group I)

GEOG 355. Geographic Information Systems (Krygier)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are an integrative set of concepts and technologies, including data capture (scanning, digitizing, GPS), data analysis, and visualization/display/output (computer cartography). This course consists of an overview of the functions and use of GIS software and hardware. The focus of the course is a community or regional project where students will work with people outside of the University on a “real world” application of GIS. No prerequisites. S. (Group I)

GEOG 360. Environmental Geography (Krygier)
Environmental geography, one of the most traditional components of the discipline of geography, encompasses natural science, social science, and humanistic understandings of the earth’s environment. Environmental geographers study the complex relationships between humans and the natural environment over time and through space. Geography 360 is being conducted as a seminar focused on social science and humanistic approaches to the environment. This course will provide a historical, geographical, and humanistic foundation for understanding the environment and the plethora of environmental issues that confront us at the beginning of this century. As a group, we will discuss current environmental issues and read and discuss a series of key books on the environment. Students will also examine a particular environmental topic in depth, culminating in a presentation at the end of the semester. Open to juniors and seniors, or by permission of the instructor. F, S. (Group I)

GEOG 370. The World’s Cities (Staff)
The development of cities and urban regions in global context is examined. Students examine urbanization processes, the historical development of cities, and the internal spatial interrelationships of urban functions and systems through readings that synthesize cultural and political-economic perspectives on cities. The course also draws inspiration from cognate fields of study, including urban planning, architectural history, and urban cultural studies. Videos and other visual materials allow students to examine the relationship between representation, everyday practices, and identity formation. In addition to developing insights through discussion of case studies, theoretical literature, and visual material, students experiment with fieldwork in order to apply what they know and to develop their own urban-geographical analyses. Open to juniors and seniors only, or by permission of instructor. S. (Group I, Diversity)

GEOG 375. Weather, Climate and Climate Change (Amador)
The primary objective of this course is to study our atmosphere by understanding its composition and the processes responsible for the observed daily fluctuations in weather (e.g., warm and cold fronts, severe weather), along with the multi-decadal controls on climate, including climate change. No prerequisites; sophomores, juniors, and seniors only. S. (Group I)

GEOG 380. Contemporary American Landscape Problems (Staff)
Examination and analysis of processes and mechanisms leading to the recent and current changes in the spatial and historical organization of natural, regional, and local cultural landscapes of the U.S. Emphasis is on current land use and development problems facing America, especially in urban areas. Several field trips are taken. Students develop mapping, observational, and analytic techniques in the field. Students complete several short research papers and a term project. Course is required of all geography majors. Prerequisite: minimum of three upper-level courses in geography or permission of the instructor. F. (Group I)

GEOG 400.1    The Role of the City in the History of Western Civilization (Staff)
An examination of the role of cities in shaping, guiding, and influencing the course of Western civilization. Urbanization has been a central aspect of the history of Western civilization since its beginnings more than 10,000 years ago, and cities for the most part have served as both the control points in which Western civilization was shaped and the control points from which Western civilization was diffused. Cities are Western civilization’s largest cultural artifact. The purpose of this course is twofold: (1) to understand the evolution of the role and purpose of cities in Western society; and (2) to understand the processes used by Western civilization to create and transform the physical fabric/structure—the morphology—of those cities. (Group I)

GEOG 490. Independent Study (Staff)
Permission of instructor required. F, S.

GEOG 491. Directed Readings (Staff)
Permission of instructor required. F, S.

GEOG 495. Apprenticeship (Staff)
Permission of instructor required. F, S.

GEOG 499. Seminar in Geography (Staff)
A seminar course focused on a selected topic from cultural geography, physical geography, environmental geography, or mapping and Geographic Information Systems. The course is taught when there is sufficient faculty and student interest in a topic not covered in depth in any other Geography or Ohio Wesleyan course. F or S. (Group I)


GEOL 110. Physical and Environmental Geology (Fryer, Martin)
An introduction to Earth’s dynamic systems, the materials that make up the planet, and the environmental consequences of geologic processes. We engage in the Earth Systems approach that emphasizes the interactions of Earth processes within and between the solid Earth, the atmosphere and oceans, and the biosphere, particularly human interaction with the planet. Topics include planetary origin, plate tectonics, the nature and origin of rocks and minerals, volcanism, earthquakes, mountain building, surficial processes that shape the human environment, and global change. Freshmen, sophomores, and juniors only; seniors by permission of instructor if related to major course of study. F, S. (Group II)

GEOL 111. Field and Lab Geology (0.25 unit; Mann, Martin)
(Alternate years; Offered 2017-2018)
Field and laboratory experiences focusing on key ideas and materials of geology. Topics include mineral, rock, and fossil identification, and topographic and geologic map interpretation. Includes multiple field trips during lab time. Optional for those students currently enrolled in GEOL 110 and open to those who have previously taken GEOL 110. F.

GEOL 112. History of the Earth (Mann)
This course covers the 4.5 billion-year history of the Earth. It examines the physical (lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere) and biotic histories as well as the interrelationships among these two realms. The first portion of the course focuses on “how we know what we know” while the second portion concentrates on “what we know.” The course presents and then uses the primary concepts (geologic time, evolutionary theory, and plate tectonic theory) that are used in understanding, interpreting, and appreciating Earth history. Prerequisites: GEOL 110 or advanced standing in another natural science with permission of instructor. F, S. (Group II)

GEOL 260. Scenic America (Fryer, Mann, Martin)
Explores North American geology using the spectacular natural settings of national parks, monuments, seashores, battlefields and other areas. The natural history of these scenic areas forms the basis for the introduction and illustration of the fundamental principles, processes, and materials of geology. No prerequisite. Satisfies one unit of the natural science requirement. Does not count toward the major or minor. Summer only. (Group II)

GEOL 270. Economic Geology (1.25 units; Martin)
(Alternate years; Offered 2016-2017)
An introduction to the Earth’s geological resources emphasizing the geology and origin of the Earth’s major metallic, non-metallic, and energy resources. Other major topics include resource exploration techniques; the development and exploitation of geologic resources; the use of geologic resources by society; the environmental consequences of resource utilization; and the political and strategic concerns surrounding resource use. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: GEOL 110. F. (Group II)

GEOL 275. Hydrogeology (Mann)
(Alternate years; Offered 2018-2019)
A general overview of hydrogeology and an investigation of the occurrence, distribution, movement, chemistry, and environmental effects of groundwater in a geologic framework. The course presents the basic principles, methods, and applications of the discipline and prepares students to address simple groundwater problems. It also prepares students to ask appropriate questions when faced with groundwater management and protection problems. Groundwater is addressed from several perspectives, as an integral part of the hydrologic cycle, as a geologic agent, and as a managed natural resource in an environmental context. The course presents numerous hydrogeologic methods, including quantitative tools, and then requires students to apply these methods to address problems commonly encountered by professionals. Numerous case studies are used to cultivate student understanding of groundwater in a variety of geologic settings. Prerequisite: GEOL 110 or GEOG 111. Additional natural science courses highly recommended. S. (Group II)

GEOL 280. Volcanology (Martin)
(Alternate years; Offered 2016-2017)
A systematic examination of volcanic phenomena. The course examines the types of volcanic eruptions, the generation and emplacement of magma, the products of volcanic activity, the impact of volcanism on humans and the environment, the monitoring and forecasting of volcanic events and planetary volcanism. Case studies of individual volcanoes and volcanic systems are used to illustrate the principles of volcanology. Prerequisite: GEOL 110. S. (Group II)

GEOL 285. Tectonics: Earthquakes and Mountain Belts (Fryer)
(Alternate years; Offered 2017-2018)
The geological and geophysical basis for the plate tectonic theory, with critical evaluation of historic and current research through reading of primary sources. Special emphasis on earthquake research including prediction efforts, and on processes of mountain belt formation. Other topics include plate kinematics, paleomagnetism, driving mechanisms, Precambrian tectonics, and tectonic geomorphology. Seminar format with emphasis on oral and written communication. Prerequisite: GEOL 112 or permission of instructor. F. (Group II)

GEOL 290. Mineralogy (1.25 units; Martin)
(Alternate years; Offered 2017-2018)
Contemporary society relies upon minerals for many of the products that it uses. Mineralogy involves the systematic study of minerals with an emphasis on the common rock-forming minerals. The basic principles of chemistry and symmetry are used to understand mineral properties and crystal structures. Topics include crystallography, crystal chemistry, the origin of mineral color, environmental issues related to minerals, and systematic study of major silicate and non-silicate minerals. Lecture and laboratory. Field trip in either GEOL 290 or GEOL 310. Prerequisites: GEOL 110 and CHEM 110, or CHEM 110 concurrent with permission of the instructor. F. (Group II)

GEOL 300.1. Field Seminar in Geology (Fryer, Mann, Martin)
The course integrates seminar-style teaching and learning with a post-semester field trip. The geologic focus of the course varies with each offering, depending on the location of the field component. Prerequisite: one course in Geology or Geography, or demonstration of other relevant experience. (Group II)

GEOL 310. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (1.25 units; Martin)
(Alternate years; Offered 2017-2018)
Knowledge about rocks, their origin, and their distribution contributes to the solution of many geological problems. Petrology focuses on the systematic study of igneous and metamorphic rocks including techniques of hand-specimen identification and classification. Basic principles of phase equilibria and geochemistry are used to understand the origin and behavior of magmas, the crystallization of magma, the origin of rock textures, and metamorphism. The dynamic nature of metamorphism in response to changes in the geological environment, as well as the relationships among tectonic processes, magma generation and metamorphism are examined. Lecture and laboratory. Field trip in either GEOL 290 or GEOL 310. Writing option. Prerequisite: GEOL 290. S. (Group II)

GEOL 315. Petrography (1.25 units; Fryer)
(Alternate years; Offered 2017-2018)
Principles and practice of identification and interpretation of minerals and rocks using the polarizing light microscope and the scanning electron microscope. Students learn the use of automated thin sectioning equipment, and produce, analyze, and interpret their own thin sections as a research project. Topics include optical mineralogy, description and interpretation of the major rock types, and chemical analysis of minerals using the X-ray analysis system of the SEM. Meets twice a week in three-hour blocks. Field trip. Prerequisite: GEOL 290. S. (Group II)

GEOL 318. Electron Microscopy: Theory and Practice (Tuhela-Reuning)
An exploration of the physical nature of electron microscopy with emphasis on the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Students investigate the influence of electron beam parameters on imaging and how to correct imaging problems to optimize analysis. Topics covered include sample selection, sputter coating, cryo preparation, and elemental analysis by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Students gain extensive, hands-on experience using the SEM. Lecture and laboratory. Additional lab time required outside of scheduled lab. Prerequisites: any two science courses that count toward a science major or permission of instructor. F. (Group II)

GEOL 320. Paleontology (1.25 units; Mann)
(Alternate years; Offered 2016-2017)
Paleontology studies life’s history and elucidates our understanding of the role of life through time. It offers a unique historical perspective of humankind in nature, provides tools for the discovery and development of resources on which industry and agriculture depend, presents a framework for understanding the sensitivity of the global system to past perturbations, and helps us identify possible consequences of recent ecosystem change. Although Paleontology (GEOL 320) covers the systematics and taxonomy of the major fossil producing invertebrate phyla, the course focuses on the paleobiology of fossils. Such topics as preservation (taphonomy), growth (ontogeny, heterochrony, and functional morphology), evolution (phylogeny, evolutionary theory, evolutionary patterns, and extinction), and fossil distribution (paleoecology and paleobiogeography) are the primary concepts addressed. The class also contains seminars in which students read and discuss the primary literature. The laboratory portion of the course is dedicated to examining fossils and addressing paleontologic questions. Several field trips allowing students to have the opportunity to collect and work on the excellent fossilized material preserved in the sediments of central and southern Ohio are included. Prerequisite: GEOL 112 or advanced standing in botany or zoology. S. (Group II)

GEOL 330. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy (1.25 units; Mann)
(Alternate years; Offered 2017-2018)
Sedimentology and stratigraphy are branches of geology that deal with the identification, description, interpretation, and the distribution (both temporal and spatial relationships) of strata. The course begins by considering classic sedimentology (the formation of sedimentary rocks) and then progresses to consider sedimentation in the context of depositional environments. This is followed by examining sedimentation at a larger scale: sedimentation in basins (tectonics, eustasy, and isostasy). The course also covers classic stratigraphy as well as the many other developments (sequence stratigraphy, quantitative biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and chemostratigraphy) in the field. The field-oriented laboratory spends at least half of the sessions in the field addressing geologic problems. In addition to working on the local geology, the class visits Central Pennsylvania during a four-day trip to examine the Paleozoic history of the Appalachian Basin. Prerequisite: GEOL 112 or permission of instructor. F. (Group II)

GEOL 340. Structural Geology (1.25 units; Fryer)
(Alternate years; Offered 2016-2017)
Geometry and mechanisms of deformation of the Earth’s crust. Classification and interpretation of fault and fold structures, theories of stress and strain, deformational fabrics, and methods of structural analysis; fundamentals of plate tectonics and structural regions of the world. Lecture and laboratory; four-day field trip. Prerequisite: GEOL 112 or permission of instructor; GEOL 345 recommended but not required. S. (Group II)

GEOL 345. Geological Techniques (1.25 units; Fryer)
(Alternate years; Offered 2016-2017)
Techniques for the investigation and solution of geologic problems. Emphasized are the techniques and equipment of field geology and technical writing. Topics include interpretation of geologic, topographic, and tectonic maps and aerial photographs; methods of field mapping and field data interpretation; drafting and presentation of geologic data; writing of technical reports. Lecture, laboratory, and four-day field trip. Prerequisite: GEOL 112 or permission of the instructor. F. (Group II)

GEOL 490. Independent Research (Fryer, Mann, Martin)
Collaborative and independent research with and under the supervision of a faculty member. Field and/or laboratory investigations culminating in a research paper. Prerequisite: discussion with and consent of supervising faculty prior to preregistration. F, S.

GEOL 491. Directed Readings (Fryer, Mann, Martin)
Individually supervised study of geological fields not covered by the regular curriculum or for consideration of topics in greater depth than possible in regular courses. Some examples include geochemistry, geophysics, oceanography, paleobiology, and planetary science. Prerequisite: discuss with instructor prior to preregistration. F, S.

GEOL 495. Apprenticeship (Staff)
Supervised geology-related work experience that earns credit. Must be approved by geology faculty prior to preregistration.

GEOL 499. Seminar (Staff)
Special topics in geology; an integrative course for geology majors who have departmental consent. F, S, with sufficient demand.